According to TROPE TOPE SITUATION, this is the third effort in the history of Romanian literature and the first in the twenty-first century to present Romanian literature to the English-speaking world. The current work is presented as an original effort brought into the English by ten translators and a team of editors who perhaps learned English from people who have never spoken the language.
Unfortunately, most of the contributions to Romanian Literature as World Literature are difficult to get through. Abounding in parentheses, subordinate TROPE TOPE SITUATION, and run-on sentences that run on and on, countless pages discourage the reader. Another characteristic of the new book is that most of its authors aim to rewrite Romanian literary history from the perspective of globalist, anticolonialist, and other currently fashionable theories, not to present Romanian literature as it is according to the Romanian literary canon.
The methodology practiced by the authors of Romanian Literature as World Literature rests mainly on the latest, most eccentric, and fanciest theories spread on American university campuses by professors of globalist, anticolonialist, feminist, and Marxist orientations, theories employed by academics and not by the literary critics featured in leading literary publications of the U.
Permeating many of the texts, an overwhelming inferiority complex actually impedes Romanian literature from being seen as a thriving, compelling world literature. Also, for reasons I cannot understand, writers who do not belong to Romanian literature are forced into the canon. If language does not define a place in a national literature, how about the declaration of nationality? Da, mă simt american, sunt american.
Sunt şi sibian şi român şi american, dar în cea mai mare parte sunt american. Mă simt acasă în America.
Îmi place sensul spaţiului, îmi place libertatea care este reală în America. Când călătoresc în Europa, în România sau chiar în Franţa, după vreo două-trei săptămâni, încep să simt graniţele invizibile ale unei istorii şi tot felul de lucruri care mă apasă, fără să ştiu de ce. Când mă întorc acasă, mă simt uşurat, îmi pun cum se spune picioarele pe masă, că e mai mult spaţiu.
If language and the declaration of Intalnire asiatica pentru casatorie are not enough, then what are the criteria for belonging to a literature? Andrei Codrescu, an important American poet of Romanian origin, is forced into a schema that pleases one of the new theories on display here.
Here, strange, uncomfortable, improbable, evasive, forbidden, or open spaces are never given. Instead, they are constructed TROPE TOPE SITUATION, better still, continuously reconstructed, quintessentially shape-changing, and what happens to them—how space is made and remade TROPE TOPE SITUATION the auspices of exile, migration, and the like—illuminates and largely parallels the situation and resituation of selfhood in the world. According to these words, Dimitrie Cantemir must be a Russian author, for he lived in Russia in exile, and a Turkish writer, because he lived in Constantinople in exile and wrote about the Ottoman Empire, but not a Romanian author; Marquez must be a Mexican and not a Colombian author, for he spent most of his life in Mexico, while Vasile Alecsandri, who traveled for twelve years all over the TROPE TOPE SITUATION, wrote his travel diaries in French, and lived in exile in France, is a French writer.
Another issue is that only 3 of the 16 contributors have the training and qualifications to propose a new narrative of Romanian literature; they are the literary critics and professors Mircea Martin, Mircea A. Diaconu, and Paul Cernat, all of whom have written books and monographs on the history of Fetele de la cahul literature and its leading authors.
The remaining 13 specialized mainly in the theory of literature, comparative literature, and in marginal aspects or single authors of Romanian literature. Strangely, the most important literary critics and site ul de dating pentru a descrie of present-day Romanian literature did not contribute to this anthology.
Imre József TROPE TOPE SITUATION specializes in the avant-garde in Transylvanian Hungarian literature, tendencies in contemporary literature, the interculturality phenomenon in Transylvania, and international networks of Surrealism. Caius Dobrescu teaches literary and cultural theory, lately showing an interest in exploring the connections among literature, terrorism, secularization, and cultural tourism.
Alex Goldiş shows an interest in digital humanities, and in quantitative cultural history, literary theories, methods, and critics. Mihai Iovănel co-editor of TROPE TOPE SITUATION General Dictionary of Romanian Literature, 2nd edition has written about Mihail Sebastian, the detective novel, and the ideologies of Romanian post-communist literature. Doris Mironescu teaches and specializes in the theory of literature, comparative literature, and M.
Christian Moraru writes and teaches about cosmodernism, globalization, global imagination, geoaesthetics.
Carmen Mușat teaches literary theory and cultural studies, her primary areas of research being the interplay of literature and culture, modernism, postmodernism, narrative, intellectual history, and critical and political theory. Bogdan Ștefănescu teaches and writes about British literature, critical theory, the rhetoric of nationalism, and the comparative study of postcolonialism and post-communism.
Andrei Terian specializes in and writes about cultural theory, the history of modern criticism, and comparative and world literature. Mihaela Ursa teaches and writes as a comparatist in the fields of critical theory, fictionality, and gender studies. That is, what we seek to accomplish is a rereading of this literature as world literature. Reaching this goal is premised, with some notable provisos across the collection, on several defining and correlated interpretive routines, theoretical notions, choices, and claims.
This copresence of the national and the worldly, their mutual and multilayered imbrication, is the very matrix of intersectionality and, by the same token, an adequate TROPE TOPE SITUATION of mapping out national identity, its much-debated uniqueness, and literature as a reliable vehicle for this distinctiveness.
The authors maintain that: Simply put, the spaces of the nation and of literature, with everything they imply, no longer coincide. They never quite did, of course. By then, his work would become the uncontested gold standard of Romanian criticism. Authors here are actually against exceptionalism.
But why do we have to be against exceptionalism? Romanian literature is exceptional as any literature on the planet is exceptional on its own way.
Exceptionalism is viewed today in politics as a way of reconciliation of patriotism with internationalism. Great Romanian novelists of the second part of the twentieth century—Marin Preda and Nicolae Breban—are not mentioned at all.
The book under discussion could be read as a blacklist of those disliked by Romanian globalists. Is this anthology then a political manifesto carrying an anti-national message? The introduction desires to captivate the foreign reader with paragraphs hard to follow. As Neil Brenner maintains, the epistemological impasse one faces here has to do with institutions as much as with political cartography and space. Andrei Terian has published three books: Critica de export: Teorii, contexte, ideologii Bucharest: Editura Muzeul Literaturii Române, ; Teorii, metode și strategii de lectură în critica și istoriografia literară românească de la T.
Maiorescu la E. He has published chapters in multi-author anthologies and articles in academic journals. Is this all that is required to rewrite the history of a literature from a supra-statal, anti-autochthonist, posttraditional and postethnic, non-ethno-supremacist, and geoaesthetic point of view with a planetary vision?
I guess not. His books are about postmodernism, cosmodernism, globalization, geoaesthetics, geomethodology, and so on. Mircea Martin, the third name on display on the cover of this anthology that seeks to rewrite the history of Romanian literature, is a sort of casualty; his name was chosen to endorse the eccentric corpus fashioned by Moraru and Terian. We are told in the introduction that Romanian literary criticism is in very bad shape and needs to be saved from itself: Breaking the epistemological mold of methodological nationalism and thus marking, in Romania as well, a new stage in literary and intellectual historiography, young critics such as Caius Dobrescu, Oana Strugaru, Alex Goldiș, Adrian Lăcătuș, Paul Cernat, Teodora Dumitru, Carmen Mușat, Alexandru Matei, Andrei Bodiu, Mihaela Ursa, Crina Bud, Mihai Iovănel, and Andrei Terian canvas more and more systematically these networks and their geoaesthetic nodes.
So, I will repeat: what are the criteria for belonging to a national literature? The birth certificate, geography, or the language?
It urges on us the entire planet as a unit of analysis. If this book does not cover the Romanian classics, the task of rewriting Romanian literary history makes no sense.
Where are Rebreanu, Macedonski? Looking at the Index, Macedonski is not cited at all; Ion Barbu is cited 6 times, Bacovia cited 4 times in TROPE TOPE SITUATION, Slavici cited 5 times, all tossed into different chapters; Rebreanu is cited 5 times, compared with Norman Manea, 11 times with dedicated pages; Papadat-Bengescu is cited 5 times, Mariana Marin 4 times; Maiorescu 10 times compared with Cărtărescu, 17 times with dedicated pages, and so on.
Romanian folklore does not even have an entry in the Index—perhaps because it is national? It is just mentioned a few times in the article about Eminescu; Creangă gets 3 mentions in the Index. My guess is that Moraru and Terian handed a mandatory bibliography to the selected contributors of this anthology, TROPE TOPE SITUATION each contributor cites almost the same theoretical productions. The misrepresentation of Femeie intalnire Spania literature is brutal.
However, we are told that there is hope. Is this mandatory?
Unlike Solomos [Greece], Mickiewicz [Poland], Petőfi [Hungary], or Botev [Bulgaria], he did not participate in any of the armed insurgencies of his own people, nor did he carry out any revolutionary activities for that matter. No wonder he could not do that, for, by the time he reached adulthood, all the heroic moments of the rising modern Romanian State seemed to have already occurred.
Alecsandri surely fit the job description. Truth be told, he was overqualified. Not only did he take part in the Revolution in Moldavia, but he also played a decisive role in the unification of the two Romanian Principalities.
The aesthetic is replaced by political, geographical, etc. With an amendment: they are not so because they hate foreigners, but because they hate themselves!
With such an introduction to Romanian literature nationalist, regionalist, provincial, marginocentric written by Romanians, I wonder who on earth would be interested in reading it or studying it?
The last price of this book published in on amazon.
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With this price, not many Romanian critics have the money to buy it and not many libraries in Romania might have this book in their collections. Beyond language, Turkish literature and culture, as well as Islamic written tradition, along with their stylistic patterns, have also influenced Hieroglyphic Story, particularly in the fragments of rhymed and rhythmic prose, which echo the Koran.
Luckily for Cantemir, [his] linguistic syncretism is after all in no way detrimental to Romanian. The havoc imperialism has wreaked throughout the world is a matter of evidence, and this observation too is a commonplace.
But such truisms are exactly the point, more precisely, the jumping-off point of my essay: to this TROPE TOPE SITUATION, imperialism has been a major driving force of world history, part and parcel of the very fabric of history.
Not only that, but, in all sorts of ways—some of them more egregious than others—empires have set in motion sociocultural and political processes without which, for better or worse, neither most of the national entities as we know them today nor supranational aggregates such as the EU would exist.
This is, in effect, the gist of my argument in the following critical sketch of modern Romanian cultural and literary history.
In other words, such influences did not TROPE TOPE SITUATION have assimilationist or colonizing effects. Again, Vasile Alecsandri fits well in the metaimperial scheme, much better than Eminescu; then is Alecsandri more important than Eminescu? A politician and diplomat highly sensitive to the emerging international image of sovereign Romania, Alecsandri was involved in Paris and London, after the crushing of the Moldavian revolution, with a quasi-underground network of political radicals from all corners of Europe.
These texts exalt models of bravery over and against a lofty backdrop enlivened by Turkish feats TROPE TOPE SITUATION valor and the presumed gallantry standards of the Russian allies. Embodying the latter analytically, literary histories illustrating the nationalist paradigm are more or less deliberately built on a closed system of relations involving rigid and discrete notions of time and space.
Such notions and the historiographic approach they enable paint a fragmented, often isolationist, stationary, monolithic, and hierarchically organized panorama caut un baiat pentru o noapte reghin world literatures and of the collective selves these literatures articulate.
Instead, what I propose in rounding off my argument is an interactional model liable to reconstruct Romanian literary history on the premise that such a scholarly enterprise cannot overlook the worldly exchanges that, while they may be more visible today than in the past, have nonetheless TROPE TOPE SITUATION birth to Romanian literature, old and new. On closer inspection, it becomes clear, however, that outside influences are referenced perfunctorily, in comments on literary movements and periods.
Practicing Orthodox Christianity, speaking a Romance language in a region dominated by Slavic nations, lodged at the intersection of Western and Eastern influences, forced to contend for centuries with the brutal expansionism of the Ottoman Empire, on one side, and of Russia, on the other side, Romanians have evolved a culture by steadily TROPE TOPE SITUATION, adjusting, and combining various outside tendencies and inputs.
A series of internal and external factors, both intra- and extra-literary, have worked together over the course of time to give birth to an eclectic yet original culture characteristically marked by a créolité of sorts, by an amalgam of literary styles, typologies, forms, and procedures.
Numerous studies dedicated to modern-era literary schools and movements from humanism to the Enlightenment and from the Baroque to classicism, Romanticism, realism, modernism and its derivatives such as Parnassianism, symbolism, the avant-garde, expressionism, and, more recently, Site ul de intalnire cu plata PayPal dwell consistently on what appears to be a characteristic of Romanian culture: given the time gap TROPE TOPE SITUATION the moment when various literary trends arise in Europe and when they are received in Romanian culture, the latter habitually treats all these directions and their corpuses as if they were coeval, hence its tendency to absorb multiple aesthetic doctrines concurrently even when, in their birth countries, they were articulated at different historical moments and, what is more, from positions hardly compatible with one another, as in the case of classicism and Romanticism, for example.
In point of fact, this is why, in Romanian literature, classicism sometimes presents features specific to Romanticism and there are no literary works that can be classified solely as products of the Enlightenment. For the same reason, the Romanian Enlightenment is difficult to distinguish from humanism and the Baroque, and so are classicism and Romanticism and Romanticism and modernism. In effect, one would be hard pressed to find any Romanian canonical writers who belong exclusively to a certain movement such as Romanticism or Symbolism.
The situation differs especially where less important literary figures are concerned, who have been inclined to reproduce mechanically, closely and recognizably, ideological tenets, themes, genres, and devices emblematic to a given literary movement.
However, I came across it again more than a decade later as I turned to the comparative study of postcommunism and postcolonialism. Suddenly, the persistence of the void motif TROPE TOPE SITUATION the identitarian imaginary of formerly colonized cultures from distinct world-systems became an eye-opener.
I would salute this anthology if there were at least four or five recent essays Dating Woman 35 English about Romanian literature as a whole. I have nothing against fresh readings. I like new points of view. However, most of these texts displaying a strong infatuation with new methodologies do not merit being presented as an introduction to Romanian literature. They award that status, rather, to a Romanian counter- or anti-culture retrospectively constructed by their agenda.
Does that mean that the book cannot stand TROPE TOPE SITUATION its own feet? To change the paradigm, this book is revealingly parallel to another effort of distortion made by the autochthonous communist collaborators after the Russian occupation of the country in Socialist realism, and the Soviet cultural paradigm exported to Romania, excluded classic authors from the teaching of Romanian literature, and threw many masterpieces on the blacklist.
Romanian culture was required to become a communist-socialist culture reflecting the socialist realist criteria imported from the USSR. A literature and its aesthetic objects are created according to a forma mentis, the language, tradition, society, and cultural civilization to which they belong, and from which they emerge. The Romanian cultural civilization is specific, original, TROPE TOPE SITUATION unique, just like any other cultural civilization of the planet, be it French, American, Colombian, or Chinese.
I am also convinced that we cannot understand ourselves if we do not understand others. Learning from and identifying with the thoughts and practices of others, as in this case, no matter how alien they might at first appear, it is important.
At the same time, differences in ways of thinking can be both barbati din Sighișoara care cauta femei frumoase din Slatina and subtle. Anyone living in that land and speaking that language as their native tongue or one of them would be imprinted by it and would contribute to it.
The language and psyche are then further reshaped and complicated by history, developments in culture, communication and coexistence with others, but it is the unique stamp of the language that defines the literature, that is the line or the spine that runs through it.
Since the language shapes the psyche, exile becomes much more problematic—and rich. How is what a Romanian native such as Codrescu writes in English shaped by his mother tongue? On that basis only, maybe such writers do belong in Romanian literature.
His father Gheorghe — was the director of the local primary school for at least forty years. The first serious tragedy in his life came when his sister Ilenuța died, leaving the entire family despondent.