Aplica ia de intalnire a aplica iilor


From work on basic standard matters in light and lighting the interest focused on application with publication of guides. As financial support is more difficult to find for the National Committees, the CIE seeks new forms for membership and new ways of getting funding from organisations and companies. There was a need for standardisation of measures and terms to use in lighting and lighting applications.

It was the National Electrotechnical Committees from the different countries that were invited to take part. During the first decade or so it became clear that lighting involves much more than production and photometry of light. Lighting engineering became more pronounced and lighting engineering societies were established in the industrialised countries.

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CIP held conferences about every 4th year in Zürich. And it has gradually grown since then to become the international organisation in lighting. And one of the important tasks for the coming years is to widen the CIE family even more.

Different ways are tried. One of the major tasks for the Aplica ia de intalnire a aplica iilor has been to find international agreement on matters related to light, lighting Aplica ia de intalnire a aplica iilor vision, both fundamental and in applications.

Some of these matters are so basic that they have become standards. First more in reality than in actual presentation.

CIE IN THE WORLD - Journal of Lighting Engineering

The results of the work in CIE were for many years only presented in the proceedings of the sessions but in the early s it was recognised that CIE should publish reports on specific topics to make them more easy to find.

Today the number of reports has exceeded and that includes a number of new editions, or updating of existing reports. For a period the CIE also published a Journal.

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As an example 85 cm above the floor was agreed as the basic level for measurements of illuminance indoors. This led to a recommendation to work on finding a method for heterochromatic photometry.

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At the session the international system, the so-called CIE System, of tricromatic colorimetry was established. A standard white light and 3 illuminants for use in colorimetry were defined. In colour the CIE has thus been very active and published standards and methods also for describing the colour rendering properties of light sources. These have been criticised very much over the years but so far no one has been able to present a better method.

The term candela was adopted at the session in in Paris to replace the old national names such as bougie, candle and Kerze. Another field where the CIE has been active is in Aplica ia de intalnire a aplica iilor, especially discomfort glare in interiors.

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As you know methods to describe the risk for glare disturbance were developed in many countries and it was very difficult to find a method that all could agree upon. One reason for this was of course that no method was perfect for all applications. It should be both simple and still flexible! The CIE presentation of lighting guides for indoor lighting needed a method also for the assessment of discomfort glare.

And finally in a proposal for a CIE method called the UGR was published as an interim method until new research could lead to a better method. And the CIE has the challenge to find both a better basis in understanding what glare is and from that a better method.

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So far funding and interested researchers is lacking. The vocabulary used in lighting and the definitions of measures and words has been published in the three official CIE languages plus Russian. The first edition came in including terms and their definitions in the then 3 official languages. Each term or word has also been translated to several languages by the CIE. When the 3rd edition came in it was adopted also as an IEC standard and this is also the case with the 4th edition from The revision of this vocabulary is constantly going on and is now approaching a new edition.

Due to the rapidly increasing number of terms and definitions it is quite probable that the 5th edition will only appear on disc, with the possibility to print relevant chapters for specific purposes. The celebration of its 75 years was flirteaza cu o alta fata in the special CIE symposium on photometry in Budapest in As mentioned above the first official CIE standards were related to colour.

The luminance distribution of the overcast sky was also established by the CIE and later for the clear sky. These are used for calculation of indoor daylight all over the world. They have now appeared as formal CIE standards. Today we also have a draft standard for a general description of the sky luminance distribution that covers all sky conditions. This is not only good for the CIE reputation but also a practical agreement as the number of experts is limited and duplication of work would mean also that the same persons, more or less, should do the work twice.

Aplica ia de intalnire a aplica iilor to this agreement the CIE work on standardisation has become officially accepted.

This is an agreement basically similar to the one between CIE and ISO about avoiding double work and making use of existing reports and standards.

As the legal status of CEN standards in the member countries are different from the ISO standards the agreement has a slightly different form. This is partly by request from ISO, partly because standards are playing a more important role internationally, as trade becomes more and more worldwide.

It also seems easier to get national support for the work in the CIE when the outcome can be a standard. There are certain rules for the work on standards within the CIE. To ensure that the outcome is an agreement between several countries you must have participants, TC members, from at least five member countries.

And it is advisable that all division members in the actual division inform their country standardising committees that a work is going on so they can follow and influence the work before Site ul de dating din lemn draft standard is presented for voting.

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New technology. Light and lighting including light-sources is a very active area for development. The new technologies lead to a need for new application guides and rules for both calculation and measurements. For the CIE this means establishment of new technical committees and even a new Division. As you know the activities in the CIE are handled by Divisions for different areas.

During a division for Image Technology was established as a result of international discussions and demand for guides in description and measurement of image quality in a broad sense.

For the CIE it is a positive sign that the international community involved in image technology turned to us to create this forum for co-operation. The attendance was bigger than expected and already planning a 3rd symposium has started. The funding of the CIE is an everlasting problem and new ways of finding sponsoring are tried.

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The funding of the CIE has been based on fees from the National Committees that are members and from sales of publications. CIE publications are rather expensive, many thinks, and the number of copies sold is small.

In order to spread the CIE knowledge we would like to be able to distribute the reports for free or make them available on the net. But then the fees must be raised and this is a very big problem for many members.

Povestea iei românești: cămașa populară, de la origini și până în prezent Acasa Editorial Povestea iei românești: cămașa populară, de la origini și până în prezent Ia face parte din costumul popular românesc din cele mai vechi timpuri, iar rădăcinile sale își au originea în portul tracilor, geților și dacilor. Din basoreliefurile de demult, care îi înfățișează pe daci, poți observa în portul acestora cămăși cu mâneci lungi, cu o croială de tip tunică, albă și lungă, dintr-o singură bucată și pantaloni strâmți și lungi ciareci, ițari. Portul era completat cu un brâu sau chimir, iar în picioare purtau opinci.

So finding interested national and international organisations and companies that are willing to sponsor the activities is one way to reduce the burden on the member countries. They are called Supportive Members in the new structure. The first has already signed as member.

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New member countries or persons from countries yet without a National Committee have also a possibility to become what is called Associate National Committees or Associate Members on a trial period basis to get familiar with the activities within the CIE without a too high cost. Also developing countries can become associate members.

Today the majority of member countries are from Europe even if all continents are represented. One goal is of course to get more members from all continents including developing countries to make the CIE really world wide.

Even if we have been working for such a long time there are questions not yet solved. Glare for instance is still debated. How can you describe glare and measure or calculate the risk for glare? Colour notation is another area where the debate continues and the CIE lacks the answer, if there is one answer.

Lighting applications become more complex as the understanding of the interactions of all environmental parameters is increasing. Many propose that the CIE should develop new guides in lighting for specific places, not only develop standards. Lighting and energy is another area where the CIE has not been very clear in its role. Education is an area where the CIE could be more active.

But how? One way could be to offer courses via the net. As new technology develops also the measurements must be developed. The same for calculations.

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Computerised calculations are spreading but how can we assure that the programs give reasonably correct answers? What tolerances in calculations can we accept and what are the tolerances in both calculations and measures? This becomes more and more important as standards have to be fulfilled and the quality assurance becomes more and more a legal matter.

Summary Even if the CIE has worked for almost 90 years there are still questions unanswered and new challenges appearing. There are many important questions to solve for the board in the new millennium. As the CIE is based on voluntary work the support from the National Committees and from all individuals is crucial. The Session in Warsaw was very successful.

Many good papers were presented, new contacts and liaisons established and a number of new active persons are found for the work.

All this looks promising and I am convinced that we together will achieve a lot during the coming un bărbat din București care cauta Femei divorțată din Reșița. Finally I hope that the number of member countries also has increased at the end of the period. De la activitatea de baz de standardizare în domeniul luminii i iluminatului, interesul s-a concentrat mai apoi pe aplica ii i studii ale c ror rezultate au fost publicate în diferite ghiduri i bro uri.

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În prezent, interesul de baz este din nou orientat în direc ia standardelor, unde CIE este parte component a organiza iilor interna ionale de standardizare al turi de ISO i CEN, precum i în domeniul noilor tehnologii. Cum suportul financiar este mult mai greu de g sit pentru Comitetele Na ionale, CIE caut noi forme de parteneriat i noi c i de ob inere a unor fonduri de la organiza ii i companii.

Ace tia au fost reprezentan i ai Comitetelor Electrotehnice Na ionale din diferite ri care au fost invitate s ia parte.